The Racism in Science. A skull from the collection of Samuel Morton, the father of Scientific racism, illustrate his classification of people into five races-which arose, he claimed, from separate acts of creation. This image was taken at as part of coverage for the new issue of @NatGeo magazine's cover story on race. Morton claimed in his Crania Americana that the Caucasians had the biggest brains, Indians were in the middle and Negroes had the smallest brains. Morton believed that the skulls of each race were so different that a wise creator from the beginning had created each race and positioned them in separate homelands to dwell in. An Anglo American skull (see above) would have been filled with lead shot, the type used in shotgun shells, his skull measurements (by volume) then came to serve as "evidence" for racial stereotypes. Morton believed that cranial capacity determined intellectual ability, and he used his craniometric evidence in conjunction with his analysis of anthropological literature then available to argue in favor of a racial hierarchy which put Caucasians on the top rung and Africans on the bottom. His skull measurements (by volume) then came to serve as "evidence" for racial stereotypes. He described the Caucasian as "distinguished by the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments"; Native Americans were described as "averse to cultivation, and slow in acquiring knowledge; restless, revengeful, and fond of war, and wholly destitute of maritime adventure" and the Africans he described as "joyous, flexible, and indolent; while the many nations which compose this race present a singular diversity of intellectual character, of which the far extreme is the lowest grade of humanity". The publication of #CharlesDarwin's On The Origin of Species in 1859 changed the nature of the scholarly debate. This is another example of the influence of the work by #Darwin and #AlfredRusselWallace